Salzburg was the capital of an independent state from the early 14th century until 1805. It was ruled by prince-archbishops, who became rich by the salt mines in the south of the city. This led to the architectural gem you see today, as materials and architects were imported from Italy and other European countries.
Alter Markt Square (map). Various shops in this area are quite old and impressive. For instance have a look at the interior of the pharmacy called Fürsterzbischöfliche Apotheke.
The Untersberg (map). The mountain is perennially popular with tourists due to its proximity to the city of Salzburg, less than 16 km (10 mi) to the north of the mountain and within easy reach by bus.